Archive For The “Europe” Category
By Dr. Heike Link, John S. Dodgson, Markus Maibach, Dr. Max Herry (auth.)
This publication provides the result of the examine "Infrastructure Capital, upkeep and street harm bills for various Heavy items automobiles within the ecu" which was once commissioned by means of the eu fee, DG VII. This examine supported the guidance of the white booklet on delivery infrastructure charging. The learn an eu consortium along with DIW (German has been carried out by way of Institute for financial examine, venture chief and chargeable for the rustic reviews for Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Sweden), INFRAS (responsible for the rustic studies for Switzerland, Denmark, Portugal and Greece), Consultancy Dr. Herry (responsible for the rustic stories for Austria, Finland, France and Italy) and NERA (National financial examine affiliates, liable for the rustic stories for the united kingdom, eire and Spain). The venture ran from November 1997 to March 1998 and used to be monitored through a steerage committee with representatives of the EU-member states. This booklet is facing the calculation of prices for street infrastructure and congestion and the allocation of those expenditures to motor vehicle kinds. It makes a speciality of heavy items cars. it is a subject of excessive relevance for delivery coverage either at the nationwide and the EU-Ievel with a protracted culture of political and clinical debate. The examine includes a finished methodological comparability of latest types for calculating highway capital values and capital expenses and for allocating infrastructure expenses to automobile types.
By Peter Linehan
Spain, 1157-1300 uses an enormous physique of basic and secondary resource fabric to supply a balanced assessment of a vital interval of Spanish in addition to of eu background.
- Examines the main major section of Spanish mainland improvement
- Considers the profound highbrow outcomes of Christian advances into Islamic Spain
- Explores the various fortunes of the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon, and makes a speciality of the reign of the discovered Alfonso X of Castile
- Utilizes the colossal physique of fundamental and secondary resource fabric released over the last 30 years
By Timothy Reuter
The interval of the 10th and early 11th centuries used to be an important within the formation of Europe, a lot of whose political geography and larger-scale divisions started to take form at the moment. It used to be additionally an period of significant fragmentation, and consequently of variations which were magnified through glossy nationwide historiographical traditions. This quantity of the hot Cambridge Medieval heritage displays those various traditions, and gives an authoritative survey in its personal phrases. the quantity is split into 3 sections: basic subject matters, the previous Carolingian lands, and parts farther afield.
Napoleon's infantrymen marched throughout Europe from Lisbon to Moscow, and from Germany to Dalmatia. the various males, as a rule conscripted through poll, had by no means earlier than been past their local village. What did they make in their notable reviews, combating battles millions of miles from domestic, foraging for provisions or garrisoning city in adverse nations? What was once it wish to be a soldier within the innovative and imperial armies? we all know extra approximately those males and their reactions to battle than concerning the infantrymen of any past military in historical past, not only from legit resources yet from the big variety of own letters they wrote. Napoleon's males offers an instantaneous perception into the studies and feelings of infantrymen who risked their lives at Austerlitz, Wagram and Borodino. now not unusually, their minds usually dwelt as a lot on what used to be taking place at domestic, and on mundane questions of food and drinks, as on Napoleon himself or the respect of France.
In November 1975, the German Marshall Fund of the us agreed to help a suggestion from the overseas Council for the standard of operating existence for examine of 'cross-cultural com munication' on advancements linked to the standard of labor ing existence -a shared curiosity of the fund and the council. In early 1976 the council invited 4 motion researchers, each one from an important language region in Europe Andreas Alioth, Switzerland and Germany; Max Elden, Norway and Sweden; Oscar Ortsman, France; and Rene van der Vlist, the Netherlands, to think about seasoned duction of a joint ebook which might make extra ordinarily to be had, at foreign degrees, reviews on cutting edge Q. W. L. ex periences inside person ecu nations. the most job of the 4 'correspondents' was once noticeable as facilitating the alternate of reviews throughout foreign barriers -it used to be left to them to make a decision which stories, how those can be communicated, and the way the venture itself can be geared up. In early March 1976, the 'correspondents' made up our minds at their first assembly to look informally, via their present nationwide con tacts, for feedback as to what papers can be of price to a bigger and extra foreign Q. W. L. readership. judgements at the char acter of the proposed publication e-book, and additional definition of the venture itself, have been at this aspect deferred. At their moment assembly, a few sixty feedback from six nations have been reviewed.
By Sian Gronlie
By Mohamed Ouerfelli
The next examine analyses the standards in the back of the unfold of sugar cane from the East to the West, the geography of its institution within the Mediterranean period and reconstitutes the strategies of sugar creation and the supplier of labor within the plantations and medieval sugar factories. It questions the standard of sugar produced and the evolution of costs of this commodity. It establishes the stipulations of its shipping and alternate. eventually, it reviews the various makes use of of sugar, together with in medicins and diets. Sugar was once victorious as a nutrition stuff and have become an quintessential element within the confectionery and pastry, which embellished the tables of the royal courts. It remained a luxurious product reserved for the excessive society.
By Jamel Ostwald
Vauban lower than Siege is the 1st systematic comparability of the idea of Vaubanian siegecraft with its truth. It areas Vauban's siege accomplishments again into their broader context, highlighting his continuation of the search for ever-greater potency pursued through a century of army engineers. in accordance with a finished stock of sieges within the warfare of the Spanish Succession, it describes how either French and Allied army officials rejected this potency paradigm and embraced as an alternative full of life brute strength strategies. Ignoring their over-worked and under-compensated engineers at key issues, generals selected to save lots of worthwhile crusade time by way of sacrificing their squaddies' lives in siege after siege. This early smooth cult of the offensive has encouraged the Western manner of battle ever because. Winner of the 2009 extraordinary booklet Award of the Society for army historical past.
By Piotr S. Górecki, Nancy van Deusen
Our realizing of medieval relevant and japanese Europe is being revitalized by means of new instructions in cultural historical past. cautious and particular pics of fourteenth- and fifteenth-century existence within the area shed new mild at the urban, the courtroom, the college and college, the economic climate, and winning principles, and extend our imaginative and prescient of the interaction among faith, politics, track and reminiscence. Górecki and Van Deusen current the zone in its intimate courting with different areas of Europe: the economic, highbrow, and social networks that obviously attach Poland and its acquaintances to facilities in Italy, France and Germany, in addition to the wide parts of touch, cultural sharing, and similarity of styles. This booklet therefore contributes to the matter of ""Europe""--as a sector and as a build. providing us not anything lower than a brand new cultural heritage of the sector, Central and jap Europe within the heart Ages may be worthy for students engaged on the cultural, fiscal and social historical past of principal and jap Europe.
By Philippe Robert, Collectif